Archiv der Kategorie: Aktien

Microfinance risk: Picture of money which leads to plant growth

Microfinance risk and more: Researchposting #107

Microfinance risk: 15x new research on publication biases, green innovation, supply chains, biocredits, greenium, ESG ratings and loans, CSR, Kickbacks etc. by Karol Kemper, Ulf Moslener, Nic Schaub, Simon Straumann, Pınar Yeşin et al.

Ecological and social research

Misleading research: Footprint of publication selection bias on meta-analysis in medicine, economics, and psychology by František Bartoš et al as of August 25th, 2022: “… we survey over 26,000 meta-analyses containing more than 800,000 effect size estimates from medicine, economics, and psychology …. The median probability of the presence of an effect in economics decreased from 99.9% to 29.7% after adjusting for publication selection bias. This reduction was slightly lower in psychology (98.9% −→ 55.7%) and considerably lower in medicine (38.0% −→ 27.5%)” (abstract). My comment: There is always bias in research, with my approach, too, but is important to disclose it: 100 research blogposts since 2018 – Responsible Investment Research Blog (prof-soehnholz.com)

Brown innovations: Toxic Emissions and Corporate Green Innovation by Wenquan Li, Suman Neupane, and Kelvin Jui Keng Tan as of Oct. 23rd, 2022 (#264): “Consistent with our main hypothesis, which hinges upon regulatory burden and environmental awareness, we show that high-emission companies produce more green patents of higher quality and value than low-emission firms. … We also find that environmental related green patents mitigate future toxic air releases“ (abstract). My question: Is internal financing sufficient or external capital required to finance these innovations?

Advert for German investors: “Sponsor” my research by recommending my Article 9 fund. The minimum investment is approx. EUR 50 and return and risks are relatively good: FutureVest Equity Sustainable Development Goals R – DE000A2P37T6 – A2P37T: I focus on social SDGs and midcaps and use best-in-universe as well as separate E, S and G minimum ratings.

Please go to page 2 (# indicates the number of SSRN downloads on December 7th):

Heidebild als Illustration für Green Research

Green research deficits: Researchblogposting #106

Green research: 15x new research on net-zero, healthcare, banking, m&a, ESG, voting, retail investors, private equity etc. by Sandra Nolte, Harald Lohre, Martin Oehmke, Marcus Opp et al.

Social and green research

Climate demographics: The Slow Demographic Transition in Regions Vulnerable to Climate Change by Thang Dao, Matthias Kalkuhl, and Chrysovalantis Vasilakis as of October 21st, 2022 (#7): “We consider how the demographic transition has been shaped in regions that are the least developed and the most vulnerable to climate change. Environmental conditions affect intra-household labor allocation because of the impacts on local resources under the poor infrastructural system. Climate change causes damage to local resources, offsetting the role of technological progress in saving time that women spend on their housework. Hence, the gender inequality in education/income is upheld, delaying declines in fertility and creating population momentum. The bigger population, in turn, degrades local resources through expanded production. The interplay between local resources, gender inequality, and population, under the persistent effect of climate change, may thus generate a slow demographic transition and stagnation. We provide empirical confirmation for our theoretical predictions from 44 Sub-Saharan African countries” (abstract).

Net zero challenges: Neutralizing the Atmosphere by Shelley Welton as of May 5th, 2022 (#151): “Net zero” has rapidly become the new organizing paradigm of climate change law. … To date, critiques have centered on what this Article terms “accounting” risks: that is, risks that pledges in action will fail to live up to pledges on paper. The Article argues that there are two broader normative risks with net zero that are underdiagnosed but may prove more intractable. First, the net zero framework presumes collective disinterest regarding the best way to neutralize atmospheric emissions, with every participating entity left to determine its own preferred strategy. In reality, decisions around how to reach net zero emissions are contested, impactful, and often politically explosive. … The second risk this Article identifies is the “collective achievement challenge”: if the world continues to pursue an atomized approach to net zero, it is likely that entities will over-rely on certain cost-effective strategies—like tree planting—at scales that cannot be collectively achieved, at least not without substantial collateral social consequences. Disjunctive efforts toward net zero thus threaten to undermine the legal, political, and physical foundations of the global project” (abstract).

Advert for German investors: “Sponsor” my research by recommending my Article 9 fund. The minimum investment is approx. EUR 50 and so far return and risks are relatively good: FutureVest Equity Sustainable Development Goals R – DE000A2P37T6 – A2P37T: I focus on social SDGs and midcaps and use best-in-universe as well as separate E, S and G minimum ratings.

Please go to page 2 (# indicates the number of SSRN downloads on November 30st):

Smart women: Picture show female teacher and students

Smart women: Researchblogposting #105

Smart women: 16x new research on populism, immigration, children, progress, renewables, CCUS, purpose, fossil fuels, green bonds and loans, social premium, resilience, sustainability preferences, and crowdfunding by Holger Spamann, Dorothea Schäfer, Andreas Stephan, Zacharias Sautner et al.

Social research: Smart Women

Smarter women (1): Income Misperception and Populism by Thilo N. H. Albers, Felix Kersting, and Fabian Kosse as of November 16th, 2022 (#13): “Based on a representative sample of German households, we find that individuals with pessimistic beliefs about their own income position have more right-wing populist attitudes. …. Men are more likely to translate dissatisfaction resulting from income misperception into populist attitudes than women. Our findings show that misperception strongly matters for populist attitudes, also in comparison to the objective income position. … policymakers … could improve citizens’ information about the households’ respective relative income position. … unintended consequences could occur. For example, the radical Norwegian approach towards transparency—one could query the income of every citizen online—decreased happiness among the poor (Perez-Truglia 2020)“ (p. 15).

Old anti-immigrants? No Country for Young People? The Rise of Anti-Immigration Politics in Ageing Societies by Valerio Dotti as of  Oct. 7th, 2022 (#3): “… population ageing and rising income inequality increase the political pressure to restrict the inflow of immigrant workers and inflate the size of government. … We show that ageing and rising inequality can help explain the success of anti-immigration politicians and parties in recent years. … the tightening of immigration policy induced by population ageing and rising inequality is generally harmful, though the harm is most severe for young people and future generations” (p. 44).

Climate demographics: Are Environmental Concerns Deterring People from Having Children? by Ben Lockwood, Nattavudh Powdthavee, and Andrew J. Oswald as of Oct. 11th, 2022 (#13): „Our study … follows through time a random sample of thousands of initially childless men and women in the UK. Those individuals who are committed to a green lifestyle are found to be less likely to go on to have offspring. Later analysis adjusts statistically for a large set of potential confounders, including age, education, marital status, mental health, life satisfaction, optimism, and physical health. … a person entirely unconcerned about environmental behaviour is found to be approximately 60% more likely to go on to have a child when compared to a deeply committed environment” (abstract).

Advert for German investors: “Sponsor” my research e.g. by buying my Article 9 fund. The minimum investment is approx. EUR 50 and so far return and risks are relatively good: FutureVest Equity Sustainable Development Goals R – DE000A2P37T6 – A2P37T: I focus on social SDGs and midcaps and use best-in-universe as well as separate E, S and G minimum ratings.

Please go to page 2 (# indicates the number of SSRN downloads on November 22nd):

Trustee or steward? Photo of Eicklingen as illustration

Trustee or steward? Researchblogposting 104

Trustee or steward? 13x new research on climate tech and finance, interest rates, plant-based food, greenwashing, reporting, engagement, benchmarks, age, PFOF, and private equity by Richard Ennis at al.

Social and ecological research: Trustee or steward?

Climate tech advantage: Empirically grounded technology forecasts and the energy transition Rupert Way, Matthew C. Ives, Penny Mealy, and J. Doyne Farmer as of Sept. 21st, 2022: “Most energy-economy models have historically underestimated deployment rates for renewable energy technologies and overestimated their costs. … Here, we use an approach based on probabilistic cost forecasting methods that have been statistically validated by backtesting on more than 50 technologies. … Compared to continuing with a fossil fuel-based system, a rapid green energy transition will likely result in overall net savings of many trillions of dollars—even without accounting for climate damages or co-benefits of climate policy” (p. 1).

Climate interest risk: The effects of climate change on the natural rate of interest: a critical survey by Francesco Paolo Mongelli, Wolfgang Pointner, and Jan Willem van den End as of Nov. 1st, 2022 (#37): “This survey is the first to systematically review the possible effects of climate change on the natural rate of interest. While r* is a theoretical concept, it is used as a benchmark by central banks to assess the stance of their monetary policy and the room for policy manoeuvre. … In most cases, we find that climate change would have a rather dampening effect on r*, which implies a narrower room for manoeuvre for central banks. … the uncertain impact of climate change on main r* may call for an increasing flexibility in the monetary policy strategy, both in terms of objectives and time horizon. …. An orderly transition will mitigate the economic and financial risks of climate change and thereby also prevent potential downward effects on r*. In addition, active fiscal policies to mitigate climate change might also spur investment demand and thereby put upward pressure on the natural rate” (p. 26/27).

Advert for German investors: “Sponsor” my research e.g. by buying my Article 9 fund. The minimum investment is approx. EUR 50 and so far return and risks are relatively good: FutureVest Equity Sustainable Development Goals R – DE000A2P37T6 – A2P37T: I focus on social SDGs and midcaps and use best-in-universe as well as separate E, S and G minimum ratings.

Please go to page 2 (# indicates the number of SSRN downloads on November 15th):

Brille als Bild für den Beitrag German ESG criticism

German ESG criticism: Researchposting 103

German ESG criticism: 14x new research on climate costs, circular economy, infrastructure, ESG, SDG, ratings, transitions, asset allocation, factor investing, REITs and private equity by Elizabeth Pollman, Bernd Scherer, Michael Grote et al.

Social and ecological research

Huge climate costs: The Global Costs of Extreme Weather That Are Attributable to Climate Change by Rebecca Newman and Ilan Noy as of Nov. 3rd, 2022 (#13): “Extreme Event Attribution (EEA), a methodology that examines the degree to which anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions had changed the occurrence of specific extreme weather events … We find that US$ 143 billion per year, of the costs of extreme events during the last twenty years, is attributable to anthropogenic climatic change. … other approaches use macroeconomic modelling embedded within climate models in various types of Integrated Assessment Models (IAM). … evidence that suggests that most IAMs are substantially under-estimating the current economic costs of climate change“ (abstract).

Circular Economy segmentation: Startups and Circular Economy Strategies: Profile Differences, Barriers and Enablers by Wim Van Opstal and Lize Borms as of October 18th, 2022 (#27): “In this paper we presented results from the first survey on circular startups that allows for multivariate statistical analyses … business-to-business and business-to-government markets can be considered as frontrunner markets for circular business models and supporting services for the circular economy. Circular startups mostly consider sustainability and circularity as a comparative advantage, while activities like maintenance and repair, and sharing production means are less often explicitly considered as circular economy activities. … Barriers and enablers vary significantly depending on the circular strategies that are applied …“ (p. 17).

Advert for German investors: “Sponsor” my free research e.g. by buying my Article 9 fund. The minimum investment is around EUR 50. FutureVest Equity Sustainable Development Goals R – DE000A2P37T6 – A2P37T: I focus on social SDGs and midcaps and use best-in-universe as well as separate E, S and G minimum ratings (compare ESG plus SDG-Alignment mit guter Performance: FutureVest ESG SDG – Responsible Investment Research Blog (prof-soehnholz.com))

Please go to page 2 (# indicates the number of SSRN downloads on November 8):

Grafik zum Gegensatz von Nachhaltigkeit und Diversifikation

Impact Investing mit Voting und Engagement? (Opinionpost #194)

Impact Investing Vorbemerkung: Dieser Beitrag basiert auf „Divestments bewirken mehr als Stimmrechtsausübungen oder Engagement“ (Söhnholz 2020a).

Impact Investing ist trendy. Idealerweise können Anleger damit ordentliche Renditen erreichen und zugleich die Welt positiv verändern. Beim Kauf börsennotierter Geldanlagen werden Wertpapiere aber nur anderen Anlegern abgekauft und die Herausgeber der Wertpapiere erhalten kein zusätzliches Geld. Anbieter von liquiden Geldanlagen behaupten aber teilweise, dass sie Emittenten, also vor allem Unternehmen, durch Stimmrechtsabgaben und direkte Einflussversuche (Engagement) nachhaltiger machen können. Das sehe ich kritisch. Ich favorisiere die Konzentration liquider Investments auf die bereits nachhaltigsten Emittenten und die Suche nach Nachahmern dafür. Hier sind einige Argumente dafür:

Werbemitteilung: Kennen Sie meinen Artikel 9 Fonds FutureVest Equity Sustainable Development Goals R – DE000A2P37T6 – A2P37T mit Fokus auf soziale SDGs und Midcaps, Best-in-Universe Ansatz, getrennte E, S und G Mindestratings? Erhältlich ab ca. EUR 50 für deutsche Anleger.

Weiter geht es auf Seite 2:

Unsustainable Bonds: Naturbild von Andres Dressler zur Illustration

Unsustainable bonds? Researchposting 102

Unsustainable bonds? 20x new research on climate risk, real estate, health, Trump, carbon credits, CDS, bank loans, bonds, interest rates, ESG indexing, pensions, gender, infrastructure, private equity, investment apps, ESG fintechs, climate AI by Roland Fuess, Tabea Bucher-Koenen, Paul Pudschedl, Markus Leippold et al.

Social and Ecological Research: Unsustainable bonds?

Longer hot: 800,000 Years of Climate Risk by Tobias Adrian, Nina Boyarchenko, Domenico Giannone,  Ananthakrishnan Prasad, Dulani Seneviratne, and Yanzhe Xiao as of September 9th, 2022 (#22): “… we study how climate evolves over the past 800,000 years … We find that the temperature-CO2 dynamics are non-linear, so that large deviations in either temperature or CO2 concentrations take a long time to correct … even conditional on the net-zero 2050 scenario, there remains a significant risk of elevated temperatures for at least a further five millennia” (p. 26/27).

Reduce green incentives? The Low-Carbon Rent Premium of Residential Buildings by Angelika Brändle, Roland Füss, Jörg Schläpfer, and Alois Weigand as of September 22nd, 2022 (#53): “The operation of residential real estate accounts for a large part of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions …. we analyze 39,791 rental contracts from 2,438 residential properties in the Switzerland … our results suggest that apartments in low-carbon buildings have higher net rents compared to dwellings which emit more carbon emissions. … the higher willingness-to-pay for low-carbon housing is not decisively driven by a tenant’s higher preference for living in an environmentally-friendly apartment. … based on capitalization rates from 432 transactions, we suggest that the market value is on average higher for carbon neutral apartment properties due to lower expected risk premiums. … incentive structures for sustainable housing have to be carefully evaluated by policy makers as higher market values of low-carbon buildings compensate investors for cutting CO2 emissions” (p. 17/18).

Advert for German investors: “Sponsor” my free research e.g. by buying my Article 9 fund. The minimum investment is around EUR 50. FutureVest Equity Sustainable Development Goals R – DE000A2P37T6 – A2P37T: I focus on social SDGs and midcaps and use best-in-universe as well as separate E, S and G minimum ratings.

For my approach to this blog see 100 research blogposts since 2018 – Responsible Investment Research Blog (prof-soehnholz.com)

For more current research please go to page 2 (# indicates the number of SSRN downloads on November 1st):

ESG regulation: Das Bild von Thomas Hartmann zeigt Blumen in Celle

ESG regulation and more (Researchblog #101)

ESG regulation: >15x new research on climate, regulation, (un)sustainable funds, SDGs, greenium, ESG reporting, voting, wealth, buy-and-hold, private equity, private real estate and AI by Roman Inderst, Andreas Hoepner et al.

Ecological and social and governance research: ESG regulation

Climate-heuristics: Harnessing the power of communication and behavior science to enhance society’s response to climate change: A white paper for comment by Edward Maibach, Sri Saahitya Uppalapati, Margaret Orr, and Jagadish Thaker as of October 5th, 2022 (#181): “… we provide an evidence-based heuristic for guiding efforts to share science-based information about climate change with decisionmakers and the public at large. … We .. also provide a second evidence-based heuristic for helping people and organizations to change their climate change-relevant behaviors, should they decide to. These two guiding heuristics can help scientists and other to harness the power of communication and behavior science in service of enhancing society’s response to climate change” (abstract).

Advert for German investors: “Sponsor” my free research e.g. by buying my Article 9 fund. The minimum investment is around EUR 50. FutureVest Equity Sustainable Development Goals R – DE000A2P37T6 – A2P37T: I focus on social SDGs and midcaps and use best-in-universe as well as separate E, S and G minimum ratings.

For my approach to this blog see 100 research blogposts since 2018 – Responsible Investment Research Blog (prof-soehnholz.com)

For more current research please go to page 2 (# indicates the number of SSRN downloads on October 25th):

Picture of a tree as symbol for the title stewardship

Stewardship etc. (Researchblog #100)

Stewardship: >20x new research on inequality, biodiversity, ESG incidents, carbon credits and indexing, greenium, stewardship, gender, social taxonomy, withdrawals and art investing by authors such as Florian Berg, Laurens Swinkels and many more

Social and Ecological Research: Stewardship

Arguments for climate action: ‚It Makes No Difference What We Do‘: Climate Change and the Ethics of Collective Action by Jonathan Crowe as of Oct. 5th, 2022 (#7): “It has become progressively more difficult to deny the existence of anthropogenic climate change as the scientific evidence has mounted …. Those who are opposed to such action sometimes justify their stance by suggesting that even though climate change is real and dangerous, there is no obligation to do anything further about it, because this would be futile … I argued that (1) everyone has a duty to do their share for the global common good, which entails combating climate change; (2) even micro-contributions to climate change plausibly create a moral responsibility to counteract their effects; (3) in any case, we would still have a duty to combat climate change even if, contrary to the evidence, this made no difference whatsoever to the outcome; (4) this result can be explained by appealing to the fact that not doing one’s share constitutes a kind of individual and collective self-harm” (p. 13). My comment: This is in line with my approach, see e.g. Absolute and Relative Impact Investing and additionality – Responsible Investment Research Blog (prof-soehnholz.com)

Advert for German investors: “Sponsor” my free research e.g. by buying my Article 9 fund. The minimum investment is around EUR 50. FutureVest Equity Sustainable Development Goals R – DE000A2P37T6 – A2P37T: I focus on social SDGs and midcaps and use best-in-universe as well as separate E, S and G minimum ratings.

Please go to page 2 (# indicates the number of SSRN downloads on October 18th):

Hängendes Faultier als Bild für negative Performance zum Titel Konzentration und SDG

Konzentration und SDG-Fokus gut: Meine 9 Monats Performance 2022

Konzentration und SDG: In den ersten 9 Monaten 2022 haben meine Portfolios zwar absolut schlecht, aber in vielen Fällen relativ gut performt.

ETF-Portfolios: Nachhaltige ETFs oft ähnlich wie aktive traditionelle Fonds

Das nicht-nachhaltige regelbasierte Weltmarkt ETF-Portfolio hat in den ersten 9 Monaten 2022 -14,2% verloren. Das ist leicht besser als aktive Mischfonds, die etwa -14,7% verloren haben. 2021 war der Vorsprung mit +17,9% gegenüber +9,5% noch erheblich höher. Das ebenfalls nicht-nachhaltige Alternatives ETF-Portfolio hat mit -12,6% (+35,8% in 2021) etwas besser als traditionelle Aktienindizes (-13,2% für einen globalen Aktienindex-ETF) abgeschnitten.

Das relativ breit gestreute ESG ETF-Portfolio schneidet in den ersten 9 Monaten 2022 mit -14,3% sehr ähnlich wie das traditionelle Weltmarktportfolio und wie aktive Mischfonds ab. In 2021 war es mit +12,2% aber nennenswert besser als aktive Mischfonds.

Das ESG ETF-Portfolio ex Bonds hat in den ersten 9 Monaten 2022 -19,4% verloren. Traditionelle Aktien-ETFs lagen mit -13,2% erheblich besser (2021 +21,4% und +25,4%). Traditionelle aktive Aktienfondsmanager waren mit -17,4% ebenfalls etwas besser (2021 +23,2%). Das ESG ETF-Portfolio ex Bonds Income rentierten mit -18,5% (2021: +23%) erheblich schlechter als aktive traditionelle Dividendenfonds mit -7,9% (+26,3%). Dagegen hat sich das ESG ETF-Portfolio ex Bonds Trend mit -3,5% (2021: 16%) wiederum viel besser als aktive Mischfonds gehalten (-14,7% und +9,5% in 2021).

Das ESG ETF-Portfolio Bonds (EUR) hat in den ersten neun Monaten 2022 mit -13,2% etwas besser abgeschnitten als traditionelle Anleihe-ETFs (-14,3%), nachdem die Performance in 2021 mit -2,8% vergleichbar war.

Das aus thematischen Aktien-ETFs bestehende SDG ETF-Portfolio hat in den ersten 9 Monaten mit -14,2% (2021: +11,9%) etwas schlechter als traditionelle Aktienindizes (-13,2%) abgeschnitten. Das SDG ETF-Trendfolgeportfolio hat mit -4,6% (2021: +7,5%) dagegen viel besser performt als aktive Mischfonds.

Pure ESG und SDG Aktienportfolios: Konzentration und SDG sind relativ gut

In den ersten 9 Monaten 2022 hat das aus 30 Aktien bestehende Global Equities ESG Portfolio mit -17% (2021: +19,8%) nennenswert schlechter abgeschnitten als traditionelle Aktien-ETFs (-13,5%) aber besser als das erheblich stärker diversifizierte ESG ETF-Portfolio ex Bonds (-19,4%). Gegenüber aktiv gemanagten traditionellen Fonds (-17,4% nach +23,2% im Vorjahr) ist die Rendite aber etwas besser. Das aus nur aus 5 Titeln bestehende Global Equities ESG Portfolio hat mit -17,4% etwas vergleichbar abgeschnitten. Aber mit den +32,1% aus 2021 liegt es weiter hervorragend im Performancevergleich.

Das Infrastructure ESG Portfolio hat -12,5% verloren (2021: +6,3%) und liegt damit weiter stark hinter traditionellen Infrastrukturportfolios (-3,5% für aktive Fonds und +1% für ETFs) zurück. Das liegt vor allem daran, dass Infrastruktur für und Energieerzeugung mit fossilen Energieträgern ausgeschlossen sind.

Der Real Estate ESG Portfolio hat in den ersten 9 Monaten 2022 -30,4% (+22,9% in 2021) verloren. Das ist ähnlich wie traditionelle passive Immobilienaktienportfolios (-30%).

Das Deutsche Aktien ESG Portfolio hat in den ersten neun Monaten 2022 -33,8% (+21% in 2021) verloren. Das ist schlechter als vergleichbare traditionelle passive Benchmarks (-30,8%) bzw. aktive Fonds (-28,9%). Zusammen mit dem Vorjahr liegt mein nachhaltiges Portfolio im Renditevergleich aber auf einem ähnlichen Niveau.

Das auf soziale Midcaps fokussierte Global Equities ESG SDG hat -13,1% erzielt (+22% in 2021), also erheblich besser als andere globale Aktienportfolios. Das Global Equities ESG SDG Trend Portfolio konnte mit -7,6% (+14,5% in 2021) wesentlich besser abschneiden als traditionelle Mischfonds, nachdem es auch im Vorjahr schon vorne lag. Das Global Equities ESG SDG Social Portfolio wurde erst am 21. Januar gestartet und wird deshalb in diesem Vergleich noch nicht berücksichtigt, die ersten Monate sind jedoch relativ betrachtet sehr gut gelaufen.

Mein FutureVest Equity Sustainable Development Goals R Fonds, der am 16. August 2021 gestartet ist, hat in den ersten 9 Monaten 2022 -13% verloren und liegt damit ebenfalls im Wettbewerbsvergleich gut, vor allem im Vergleich zu anderen aktiv gemanagten Aktienfonds. Das gilt auch für die Volatilität von 14% und den maximalen zwischenzeitlichen Verlust von 13,8% (vgl. auch Mein Artikel 9 Fonds: Noch nachhaltigere Regeln – Responsible Investment Research Blog (prof-soehnholz.com)),

Fazit

Vereinfacht zusammengefasst haben meine konzentrierten direkten Aktienportfolios (vgl. 30 stocks, if responsible, are all I need – Responsible Investment Research Blog (prof-soehnholz.com) besser als vergleichbare ETF-Portfolios rentiert. Und nachhaltige Portfolios haben zwar schlechter als traditionelle ETF-Portfolios, aber vergleichbar mit aktiv gemanagten traditionellen Fonds performt. Im Einzelnen rentierten das Infrastruktur- und das Deutsche Aktienportfolio relativ schlecht. Relativ gut waren dagegen die Trendfolge und die SDG Portfolios sowie mein FutureVest Fonds.

Anmerkungen:

Die Performancedetails siehe www.soehnholzesg.com und zu allen Regeln und Portfolios siehe Das Soehnholz ESG und SDG Portfoliobuch. Benchmarkquelle: Medianfonds relevanter Morningstar-Peergruppen (Eigene Berechnungen).